Das Erdwerk (1) - Befunde

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Dirk Raetzel-Fabian


The Calden causewayed enclosure consists of a double-ditch system, covering an area of 14 ha. Two parallel palisade trenches, accompaning the inner ditch, can be reconstructed as a wall, constructed of timber and earth. Access was possible at seven points (causeways), each of which was controlled by a wooden building of a similar ground plan, which would allow only one person at a time pass through into the inner range. The architecture of these gateways is unique in Neolithic Europe. The fa├žade (front) of the enclosure faces towards south-west; a direct connection to a long distance track from the Hellweg zone to the Kassel basin, leading by in the direct vicinity, is highly probable. Several features underline the role of the enclosure as a place where ritual and mortuary activities were carried out in a context of representation, territoriality and communication towards the outer sphere.
The use of the enclosure can be divided into three main phases: A - c. 3700 / 3600 BC: construction and first refilling of the ditches. Sparse late Michelsberg and Baalberge material. B - c. 3200 / 3000 BC: Re-use and re-cutting of the ditches, no more palisades. Horgen-like pottery of the older Wartberg Culture and some Tiefstich sherds (TRB-Westgroup). C - c. 2900 / 2000 BC: Continuous re-use of the ditches. In the uppermost part of the filling traces of the Single Grave Culture (Einzelgrabkultur).