Kieselgeoden als wichtiger Rohstoff für die Beilproduktion im Neolithikum von Nordwestdeutschland – Erste Nachweise von Produktionsplätzen der Trichterbecherkultur

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Cajus Diedrich

Abstract

The black silica-ironstone was used in northwestern Germany during the Neolithic period only for the production of large stone
tools. It is a sediment type from the Soninnia-Beds of the Lower Doggerian (Middle Jurassic) that was heated up thermically by the Bramscher and Vlothoer Pluton in the Cretaceous
periods and has similar working features such as flintstone. The large platy to small round black concretions were collected by the
Neolithic people from surfaces between the Teutoburger Wald to Wiehengebirge. The raw material was collected in secondary Pleistocene Saale ice age deposits of ground and
end moraines or from Were, Else or Weser river terrace gravels. For the first time, this material was discovered and rarely used by the Rössen Culture (6.900 BP) for the fabrication
of flat unperforated adzes. In the period of the Funnel Beaker Culture a manufacture of rectangular silica-ironstone hatchets
and their trade over distances of about 150 km can be prooved. From this period a new hatchet production place was remembered at Bissendorf-Wulften, Kr. Osnabrück in close
contact to some megalith graves such as the Sloopsteene and settling places. At this site the raw material, more than 150 debris, and some hatchet fragments, hatchet brutes, broken
half products and finished polished hatchets were found. Other Neolithic sites have delivered only a few silicaconcretion debris
in between the common flint stone material. Another more important small production site of the Funnel Beaker Culture was found at an old river branch of the river Else at Kirchlengern-
Steinlacke, Kr. Herford. With the discovery of these hatchet producing sites for the first time the silica-ironstone hatchet production can be discussed. 68% of the debris at
the main site Bissendorf-Wulften contains cortex remains that indicate a prepreparation to hatchet brutes, which were polished in another step from all sides. The debris was rarely used for scrapers. In a few cases cissels and thickbladed rectangular hatchets were produced of the silica-ironstone. The high percentage of hatchet fragments and debris indicate
a lower quality of the raw material silica-ironstone concretion as flintstone or magmatic rocks. In the following late Neolithic
periods people of the Single Grave and Bell Beaker Cultures used rarely silica-ironstone mainly for the production of battle axes, until this raw material became forgotton at about
4.200 BP.

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How to Cite
Diedrich, Cajus. 2004. “Kieselgeoden Als Wichtiger Rohstoff für Die Beilproduktion Im Neolithikum Von Nordwestdeutschland – Erste Nachweise Von Produktionsplätzen Der Trichterbecherkultur”. Journal of Neolithic Archaeology, December. https://doi.org/10.12766/jna.2004.11.